Sitar Power generation 3 by Ashwin Batish. All rights reserved. Copyrighted image

Sitar Power generation 3 by Ashwin Batish. All rights reserved. Copyrighted image

Lishkare by Meena Batish. A collection of Punjabi Folk Songs. Music by S. D. Batish and Ashwin Batish. All rights reserved. Copyrighted image

Music of India - Glossary

Written by Ashwin Batish
Important Copyright Information: ©1980 - 2012 Ashwin Batish. This work is published under the Batish Institute of Indian Music and Fine Arts by Pandit Ashiwn Batish. All rights are reserved. ©1980 - 2012 Batishs. Do not copy out of this page. All content is written by Ashwin Batish. You can link to it but do not copy it to another web site or publish it to any other work with out the express written permission of the author

This is an alphabetical list of the more important and frequently used terms in North Indian classical music. If you can think of one that should be included please email the information to info [at] batish.com
Thank you.


Achal - Fixed. Refers to notes Sa and Pa that have no flat or sharps.

Arohi - Ascending movement a. k. a. Arohana; Aroh

Avirbhav - To make visible the original raga form

Abhoga - Closing movement in a composition

Alaap - Unmetered Raga introduction and expansion; prelude

Andolan - Undulating vibrato. As in Andolit Meend - a slow, meditative occilation created on a single note

Ang - Style; as in Gayaki Ang - vocal style

Anhad - Unstruck or self emnating. Sound of silence. In music Unhad Naad - unstruck sound cosmically produced. Inner voice or sound emnating deep within our soul. Opposite of 'hada or hatha naad' which means struck sound which is created by friction. Also see hatha yoga vs unhata yoga. Other sp: Anahad, unhat, anahat

Alankar - Ornaments, exercises

Antar Gandhar - Shudha Gandhar

Antara - 2nd Movement in a composition with the melodic progression generally in the uttarang (upper)regions of the octave

Antya - Ending on

Anuvadi - Assonant note

Asthai - 1st movement in a composition with the melodic progression generally in the poorvang region of the octave and below

Asthan - Region; area: as in Mandar Asthan-lower octave region

Ati - Very

Audava - Five notes; pentatonic

Avarohi - Descending movement a. k. a. Avarohana; Avaroh


Bhajan - Devotional song

Bol /s - Sound sylabel /s. as in Tabla Bols


Carnatic - South Indian

Chakra - S. I. Melakarta raga classification. There are 12 Chakras of six ragas each, giving the 72 Melas. See Mela Chart.

Chalan - A systematic raga expansion

Chautalaa - 14 Beat Cycle


Dadra Tal - Six beat cycle

Deepchandi Tal - Fourteen beat cycle

Dhamar Tal - Fourteen beat cycle

Dhaivata - Sixth musical note (Dha)

Drut - Fast


Ek Tal - Twelve beat cycle


Gandhar - Third musical note (Ga)

Gayaki - Vocal

Geet - Popular song or composition

Ghazal - Urdu poem, vocal song style

Grama - Ancient music scales- Shadaja, Madhyama, and Gandhar Gramas


Hindustani - North Indian


Jati - Tonal classification

Jhaptal - Ten beat cycle

Jhumra Tal - Fourteen beat cycle


Kan - Grace, as in grace note

Keharwa Tal - Eight beat cycle

Komal - Flat

Kriti - Classical composition (used in S. I. music system)


Lakshan - Introduction, definitive principles, or rules

Laya - Tempo


Madhya Saptak - Middle octave region; middle pitch register

Madhya Laya - Medium Tempo

Madhyama - Fourth musical note (Ma)

Mandar - Lower octave region; low pitch register

Manjari - Collection, bouquet

Meend - Slide or glissando

Mela - S. I. Parent mode; 72 in all; See Mela chart

Mishra - Mixed

Mridangam - Barrel shaped drum used in Carnatic classical music


Nada - Sound in general; but applies more to musical sound or else it is considered noise. Nada is of two types: Ahata (struck) and Unahata (un-struck)

Nada Brahma - This universe is sound

Nataka - Drama

Nyasa - Closing note; cadence

Nishadha - Seventh musical note (Ni)


Pakar - Characteristic musical catch phrase of a raga

Panchama - Fifth Musical note (Pa)

Pandit - A learned man; scholar

Poorvang - Lower tetrachord-Sa Re Ga Ma / modified to Sa Re Ga Ma Pa

Prati - Sharp (a. k. a. Tivar)


Raga - Modal scale

Ragini - Feminine gender Modal scale

Rasa - Emotional state. In music there are nine: Shringaar (sensual), Raudra (anger), Hasya (happy), Vibhatsaya (disgust), Veera(heroic), Karuna (sympathy), Bhayanak (fear), Adabhuta (wonder), and Shanta (peace)

Rasik - Tasteful, admirer of beauty, creator of Rasa. Author Pandit S. D. Batish's poetic name

Rishabha - Second musical note (Re)

Riyaaz - Practice

Rupak Tal - Seven beat cycle


Sanchari - Third movement in a composition encompassing all the regions of the octave; Sanchari means wandering

Sangeet - Musical science

Sampooran - Seven note; heptatonic

Samvadi - Subsonant, the second most important note in a raga

Sandhi Prakash - Sunrise or sunset time periods

Saptak - Octave (Sapt means seven. Indian music does not count repeated notes as a part of the same octave. But saptak and octave basically imply the same meaning)

Sargam - Indian solfegio; derived from the first four notes Sa, Re, Ga, Ma

Shadaja - First musical note (Sa). A. k. a. Kharaja

Shastra - Treatise

Shaudava - Six note; hexatonic

Shruti - Musical microtone; pitch; intonation

Shudha - A pure or a natural note

Swara - Musical note

Swaroop - Image


Tabla - North Indian drum set consisting of the Dagga (bass drum) and the Tabal (Treble drum)

Tal - Rhythm cycle

Tan - An improvised vocal or instrumental musical phrase

Tanpura - String instrument used for drone; Tanpura means to fill the void behind the music; to complete or assist a tan; a. k. a. Tamboora

Tar - Upper octave region; upper pitch register

Tamboora - See Tanpura; made from a gourd (Tumba)

Thaat - Parent scale, parent mode; Thaat means to tie down as in frets

Thumri - Vocal or instrumental song style

Tintal - Sixteen beat cycle

Tirobhav - Deviating or camouflaging from the original. Concealment

Tivar - Sharp


Uttarang - Upper tetrachord-Pa Dha Ni Sa / modified to Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa


Vadi - Sonant. The most important note in a raga

Vakra - Zigzag, indirect, or crooked

Varana - Embellishment, note group

Varjit - Omitted, deleted or avoided note

Vikrit - Modified

Vilambit - Slow

Vivadi - Dissonant note

Abbreviations used

A. k. a. - Also known as

R. N. I. - Ragas of North India

R. S. I. - Ragas of South India

N. I - North India

S. I. - South India

RRLM - Rasik Raga Lakshan Manjari

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Sitar Tutor 1 DVD  by Ashwin Batish. Learn the basics of playing the sitar. Proper tuning, hand and sitting positions and other  important techniques to give the begining student  the right start on their road to learning this instrument
Sitar Tutor 2 DVD  by Ashwin Batish. Begining Sitar Exercises. This is one of the best tutors to take the student to the next level of  sitar techinques to give the begining student  the right start on their road to learning this instrument
Sitar Tutor 3  DVD by Ashwin Batish. It sounds simple enough until you go about doing it. Changing the strings on your sitar can  be quite daunting especially to newbies. An instrument repair shop can charge you a lot for this. It can take a  seasoned pro more than two hours for this job. It is good for a sitar student to know how to do this themselves.  What if you are performing and you break a string you have to become an expert to take care of such emergencies!

This video covers the intricate task of replacing all the strings on a sitar. Detailed step-by-step instructions  makes this experience easy and safe. Tips given include how to make proper string loops, clean the frets, polish  the sitar, and how to protect yourself from injury.
Sitar  Tutor #4 - Tweaking Your Sitar

by Shri Ashwin Batish

Sitars coming out of India are invariably in need of tweaking. This is unfortunate as most of the new sitar  students (and a few old ones) have no idea of the mechanics of a sitar and hence cannot set it to play in good  intonation and with the proper action. THis not only makes your learning experience disappointing but is also a  major barrier to a student's musical growth. This tutor covers many of the adjustments necessary to whip your sitar  into performance shape. Topics Covered: Bridge adjustment using harmonics, Main string adjustment, Tuning beads  adjustment, Tuning the frets for proper intonation, Adjustments to maximize the sitar's meend, Shimming the bridge  - Program duration 62 minutes. www.batish.com
Sitar String Set
Batish Style
Batish Standard Sitar String Set: This contains 7 individually packed main and 13 sympathetic strings in a roll.  The 2nd and 4th strings are the same gauge. These strings are very high grade and are packed with instructions for  installation. All strings are carefully cut and wrapped at our facility in Santa Cruz and are some of the best  grade strings available. These are the same strings used by Ashwin Batish himself!
Batish Brand
Low Sa String Set: This contains 7 individually packed main and 13 sympathetic strings in a roll. The 4th string is  the Low Sa bronze gauge 28.5 string. All our strings are very high grade and are packed with instructions for  installation. All strings are carefully cut and wrapped at our facility in Santa Cruz and are some of the best  grade strings available. These are the same strings used by Ashwin Batish himself!
SAT1100 Seiko  Tuner
Great for tuning your sitar veena etc. It has a VU meter so one can judge better how to tune microtones as opposed  to the equal temperament. www.batish.com
Finger Picks for Sitar, Veena: Very good quality, Steel picks. Click on More images for instructions on how to  measure your finger to get a correct fit. This is critical for everyone to do before ordering.
Fret  tying thread for Sitar, Dilruba. 
Available in Yellow or Green. See More images for other style. www.batish.com catalog
Swan Tuner for  Main strings of sitar, tanpura, veena: made of bone. Very good quality. Some sample shapes are given. All pieces  vary in size, shape and looks as they are all individually carved by hand. We recommend that if you are getting a  set of these for a sitar, the largest one should be put on the 1st string. www.batish.com catalog
Main Bridge  for Sitar. www.batish.com catalog
Plastic Swan  for tuning in sitar, veena, tanpura. www.batish.com catalog
Sitar Power  Hats!www.batish.com catalog
Sitar Power  Vinyl LP original Batish release - RARE!!www.batish.com catalog
Sitar  Power Sweatshirts
Large, XL, and XX Large
Please specify size when ordering. Only one gray one left. Size Large.!www.batish.com catalog
Sitar Power 1  T-Shirts for Sale. 50/50 haynes

Sizes presently available Large, XL, and XXL!www.batish.com catalog
Sitar  Power Hats!www.batish.com catalog for kids
In Concert - Part  1 - Ashwin Batish - Sitar, Zakir Hussain - Tabla - Raga Shudha Sarang - Alaap and Gat in medium and fast tintal.

This is the first half of a concert held at the Performing Arts Theatre, University of California, Santa Cruz. It  is a unique and a refreshing experience in the exposition of the North Indian school of music.

(Program duration 56 minutes)!www.batish.com catalog
Morning  Meditation Ragas on Sitar: Shri Ashwin Batish, sitar and Pandit S.D. Batish, tabla. 
All music composed and performed by Ashwin Batish (ASCAP)
Exotic  scales of North India: 650+ Ragas written in Staff and Sargam notations, pp. 190.
This encyclopedia is for all musicians interested in boosting their compositional creativity. Notated in Western  staff and Indian sargam, it is a reference guide designed to put you in touch with the wealth of exotic raga scales  of North India. Now you too will have access to the very same knowledge that is an integral part and foundation of  practicing Indian musicians. Keep it handy and tap its wealth. www.batish.com catalog
These are  introductory songs on the ragas of the North Indian Music System with English Lyrics designed especially for the  Western student. The words will teach you the raga’s rules, while the melody will simultaneously unfold the raga’s  image! Listen and Learn ...... An idea so simple yet so brilliant manifested as Panditji and I were trying to  create an educational tool to teach our English speaking students in the West. Rasik Raga Lakshan Manjari is the  product of our quest. It is the first time traditional ragas have been expressed with English words so that  students in the West and all over the English speaking areas of the World can learn the basics of the Hindustani  Raga Padhiti by simply learning a song. Lakshan Geet are introductory raga songs and they express within the song  all the necessary rules that are required to learn and play the raga. These have, in the past, only been available  in Sanskrit and Hindi for Indian students. The compositions that are weaved around the English words are built with  all the Raga's attributes in mind and hence reinforce the words thus making this a very powerful learning tool.  Panditji sings them with powerful yet clear renditions so that the student can sing along. All the ornaments are  expressed and might take a while to digest fully. But in time we are very confident that the student will listen  and learn successfully. www.batish.com catalog
Ashwin Batish  presents 10 of the hottest rhythm cycles of North India in this unique collection that has been compiled especially  for classical and folk music of North India and is an invaluable resourse for Jazz/World musicians and composers  interested in jamming with Tabla grooves.
Rhythms featured are: Tintal-16 beats, Ek Tal-12 beats, Rupak-7 beats, Dadra-6 beats, Keharwa-8 beats, Jhaptal-10  beats, Jhumra-14 beats, Deepchandi-14 beats, Dhamar-14 beats, and Jaltital-16 beats.

There are 10 CDs in all, one for each Tala. Each CD consists of the Theka in three different tempos - slow, medium  and fast. Each track is 15 per tempo. In the case of Tintal and Ektal rhythms, we have included bonus tracks of the  very slow theka. www.batish.com catalog